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Author Guidelines

Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing

Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing is fully open access from April 2021!

Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing (HEDN) is a peer-reviewed journal that focuses on gathering academic and clinical knowledge from around the world with regard to disaster nursing.

Authors who publish in HEDN will be able to make their work immediately, permanently, and freely accessible to read, download and share. Open access (OA) enables the rapid publication of good-quality, well-conducted research that reaches the standard acceptable for publication. OA content is open to all, with no access fees. Accepted papers can be published rapidly, typically within 30 days of acceptance.

Open Access Agreement

After peer review, HEDN authors whose work has been accepted will pay an article processing charge (APC), have a choice of license options, and retain copyright to their published work. The author will be directed to sign the OA agreement under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) in order to be funder compliant. The license allows unrestricted reuse of the article providing the author(s) and original source are properly cited.

Authors or their funder will be required to pay an Article Publication Charge (APC) upon acceptance, which are as follows:

Article Processing Charges (APC)

Original Article US$1,500
Practical Report US$1,500
Review Article US$1,500
Rapid Communication US$1,500
Student discount: 50% off for these categories
Image Essay US$200
Free for students

For inquires, contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing, the official English-language Journal of the non-profit organization (NPO), Disaster Nursing Group, affiliated with the Japan Society of Disaster Nursing, is a peer-reviewed journal that is published online.

The aims of this Journal are:

  • To accumulate evidence and develop a body of knowledge and nursing theories with regard to disaster nursing by gathering academic and clinical knowledge from all over the world;
  • To provide the latest information in terms of physiological, psychological, and social responses of individuals, families, communities and nations in a variety of disaster environments;
  • To promote excellence in health emergency and disaster nursing through the dissemination of evidence at the local movement/action towards the world.
  • To provide the opportunities for students or young scholars in the early stages of their professional careers to publish in an academic journal.


HISTORY PAPERS are preferred in the Chicago 17th Style format. See https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html

All other manuscripts should follow the style of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (2010), http://www.apastyle.org/index.aspx, and the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ revised ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’, as presented at http://www.ICMJE.org/

Original Article

Definition: Original research, consisting of an introduction, methods, results, and discussion. Original work must provide at least 10 references and an explanation about research findings. Length: Should be approximately 5000 words (not including the abstract, references, tables and/or figures).

Practical Report

Definition: Report on the practice of nursing in disaster settings. Length: Should be approximately 5000 words (not including the abstract, references, tables and/or figures).

Review Article

Definition: Critical evaluations of current research that has already been published and organizing, integrating, and evaluating previously published material. Re-analysis as meta-analysis and systemic reviews are encouraged. Length: Should not exceed 4000 words.

Rapid Communication

Definition: Particularly important and/or timely work intended for rapid review and dissemination. Length: Should be approximately 5000 words (not including the abstract, references, tables and/or figures).

Image Essay

Definition: Brief essays accompanied by images that capture a moment in disaster nursing. The moment need not be a crucial moment; it may be just an ordinary moment of human interest. All types of images are welcome (e.g. photos, maps, documents or flags), and the images or text can be the primary focus. Length: Approximately 200-900 words (although longer or shorter essays will be considered upon negotiation with the Editors).


Definition: Brief reports, case studies, comments, Letters to the Editor, and replies on previously published articles will be considered. Length: Should not exceed 2000 words.


The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are double-blind peer reviewed by two or more anonymous reviewers and the Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication.

Manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. They should be written in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of content, the Editor or the Publisher reserves the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition, and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.


Authors are responsible for the linguistic accuracy of their manuscripts. All authors should seek advice from subject specialists with a sound knowledge of English. Authors who need English assistance should contact the Editorial Office for details regarding an English-language editing service. The Editorial Office does not provide any guarantee or warranty regarding this service and will not be held responsible for the content accuracy.

The following is a resource that authors can use. Use of this resource is at the author's own expense and risk. The HEDN Editorial Office has no involvement in any interaction between the author and this firm. Access Medical Communications (http://www.members.optusnet.com.au/accessmedcom)


Manuscripts should be submitted online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/hedn. Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email.

All articles submitted to the Journal must comply with the following instructions. Failure to do so will result in the return or rejection of the manuscript.

    Submissions should be double-spaced throughout the manuscript, including tables.
  • All margins should be at least 30 mm or 1 ½ inches.
  • Font size must be 12 point, including data and text in tables.
  • Hard returns should not be used at the end of each line within paragraphs.
  • The hyphenation option should be turned off; only those hyphens that are essential to the meaning should be included.
  • Any special characters used to represent non-keyboard characters should be specified.
  • Care should be taken to not use l (ell) for 1 (one), O (capital o) for 0 (zero) or ß (German esszett) for β (Greek beta).
  • Tabs not spaces should be used to separate data points within tables. If a table editor function is used, ensure that each data point is contained within a unique cell (i.e. do not use carriage returns within cells).
  • Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 dpi) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.

Getting Started

  • Launch your web browser (supported browsers include Internet Explorer 5.5 or higher, Firefox 1.0.4 or higher or Safari 1.2.4) and go to the Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing ScholarOne Manuscripts™ homepage (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/hedn).
  • Log-in or click the “Create Account” option if you are a first-time user of ScholarOne Manuscripts™.
  • If you are creating a new account:
    • After clicking on “Create Account”, enter your name and email information and click “Next”. Your email information is very important.
    • Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click “Next.”
    • Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your email address as your user ID), and then select your area of expertise. Click “Finish”.
  • If you have an account but have forgotten your log in details, go to “Password Help” on the ScholarOne Manuscripts™ homepage and enter your email address. The system will email you details on how to log in.
  • Log-in and select “Author Center.”

Submitting Your Manuscript

  • After you have logged in, click the “Submit a New Manuscript” link in the menu bar.
  • Enter data and answer questions as appropriate.
  • Click the “Save and Continue” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.
  • You are required to upload your files.
  • Click on the “Browse” button and locate the file on your computer.
  • Select the location of each file in the drop-down menu next to the Browse button.
  • When you have selected all the files you wish to upload, click the “Upload Files” button.
  • Review your submission (in both PDF and HTML formats) before sending your material to the Journal. Click the “Submit” button when you are finished reviewing your choices.

Important Notes

  • Material that might identify authorship of the paper should not be included in the manuscript file. The title page and specific acknowledgements need to be in a separate ‘title page’ file, which will not be for review.
  • Include the abstract at the beginning of the main manuscript file, as well as entering it in the designated space at submission step.
  • Tables and figures should not be embedded in the manuscript. They should be presented in separate files.
  • When submitting a revised manuscript, a point-by-point response to reviewers’ comments is required in the Author’s Response section. In the manuscript, also highlight your changes by using bold or colored text. The author’s name should not be included in the Author’s Response section for the double-blind review.
  • The track changes function must not be used when a revised manuscript is submitted.
  • After submission, you will receive a confirmation email. You can also access ScholarOne Manuscripts™ any time to check the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by email once a decision has been made.


Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in the cover letter.

The cover letter must also contain an acknowledgement that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.

Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest. It is the responsibility of the authors to disclose to the Editor any significant financial or personal interests they may have in products, technology or methodology mentioned in their manuscript. This information will be deemed confidential and will only be disclosed to manuscript reviewers if, in the opinion of the Editor, the information is directly pertinent for an informed review.

Authors are responsible for securing permissions for all materials and photographs submitted. If more than 500 words of a text are quoted from a book, or more than 250 words from an article, or if a table or figure has been previously published, the manuscript must be accompanied by written permission from the copyright owner (usually the Publisher), stating authorization to reproduce the material. This must be attached to the cover letter.

The cover letter of the paper should contain: (i) the title; (ii) the full names of the authors; (iii) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out, together with (iv) a full postal and email address, plus facsimile and telephone numbers of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied.


Authors must follow the ethical standards for human experimentation established in the Declaration of Helsinki in 1995 (as revised in Seoul 2008), available at http://www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm

The authors reporting studies involving human subjects must have obtained approval from an appropriate institutional ethics board before any data collection to be reported in the study results was started. Upon request from the Journal Editors, the author(s) must provide copies of the appropriate documentation. Local institutional approval must be indicated in the Materials and Methods section of the submitted manuscript.

If the study is exempt from Institutional Review Board approval, or if your institution has no mechanism to approve the protection of human subjects, an explanation document signed by an appropriate institutional person must be submitted along with the manuscript and mentioned under the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.

All investigations on human subjects must include a statement that the subject(s) gave informed consent. Patient anonymity should be preserved. Photographs need to be cropped sufficiently to prevent human subjects being recognized (or an eye bar should be used).

In general, submission of a case report should be accompanied by the written consent of the subject (or parent/ guardian) before publication; this is particularly important where photographs are to be used or in cases where the unique nature of the incident reported makes it possible for the patient to be identified. While the Editorial Board recognizes that it might not always be possible or appropriate to seek such consent, the onus will be on the authors to demonstrate that this exception applies in their case.

Any experiments involving animals must be demonstrated to be ethically acceptable and, where relevant, conform to national guidelines for animal usage in research.

The Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing Journal requires that clinical trials submitted for its consideration are registered in a publicly accessible database. Authors should include the name of the trial register and their clinical trial registration number at the end of their abstract. If you wish the Editor to consider an unregistered trial, please explain briefly why the trial has not been registered. For author reference, examples of public clinical trial registries include: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; http://clinicaltrials-dev.ifpma.org/; http://isrctn.org/; http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm


Authors should declare any financial support or relationship that may pose a conflict of interest as a Conflict of Interest Statement in the Disclosure section of the manuscript. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated.


The authors are to retain the copyright for their articles. Articles are made available under a Creative Commons license (usually CC-BY) to allow others to freely access, copy and use the research provided the authors are correctly attributed.


The journal uses US spelling. All authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the Merriam–Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.


All measurements must be given in Système International (SI) units.


Abbreviations should be used sparingly – only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation only.

Trade names Chemical substances should be referred to by the generic name only. Trade names should not be used. Drugs should be referred to by their generic names. If proprietary drugs have been used in the study, refer to these by their generic name, mentioning the proprietary name, and the name and location of the manufacturer, in parentheses. Genetic nomenclature

Standard genetic nomenclature should be used. For further information, including relevant websites, authors should refer to the genetic nomenclature guide in Trends in Genetics (Elsevier Science, 1998).

Nucleotide sequence data can be submitted in electronic form to any of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ, EMBL or GenBank. It is only necessary to submit to one database as data are exchanged between DDBJ, EMBL and GenBank on a daily basis. The suggested wording for referring to accession-number information is: ‘These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number U12345.’ More details are available at:


Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page; (ii) abstract and keywords; (iii) text; (iv) acknowledgments; (v) disclosure statement; (vi) authors’ contributions; (vii) references; (viii) appendices; (ix) figure legends; (x) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes); and (xi) figures. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Title page

The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title. A short running title (less than 50 characters) should also be provided.

Abstract and key words

All articles (except Comments, Replies, and Letters to the Editor) must have a structured abstract that states in 250 words or fewer the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. Divide the abstract with the subheadings: Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusions. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references.

Five key words, for the purposes of indexing, should be supplied below the abstract, in alphabetical order, and should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list.


Authors should use the following subheadings to divide the sections of their manuscript: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, Authors’ Contributions, Disclosures, References.


The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.


At the time of submission, each author must disclose and describe any involvement, financial or otherwise, which might potentially bias his or her work. The disclosure must be provided under the heading titled “Disclosures”, which should appear after the “Acknowledgments” section and before the “References” section. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated.

Authors' Contributions

In order to give appropriate credit to each author of a paper, the individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section. HEDN adheres to the definition of authorship set up by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). An 'author' is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. To qualify as an author, one should: (1) have made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) have given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not justify authorship. We suggest the following format (please use initials to refer to each author's contribution): AB, CD contributed to the conception and design of this study; EF performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript; GH critically reviewed the manuscript and supervised the whole study process. All authors must read and approve the final manuscript. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a departmental chair who provided only general support.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.

The author–date system of referencing as shown in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) should be referred to (examples are given below).

In the text, give the author’s name followed by the year in parentheses; for example, Smith (2000). If there are two authors use ‘and’, for example, Smith and Jones (2001); but if cited within parentheses use ‘&’: (Smith & Jones, 2001). When reference is made to a work by three to five authors, cite all authors the first time it occurs; subsequently, list the first author followed by et al. If there are six or more authors, cite only the first author and then use et al. For references to multiple sources, please list these in chronological then alphabetical order. In the Reference List, references should be listed in alphabetical order.

In the Reference List, cite the names of all authors when there are six or fewer; when seven or more, list the first six followed by et al. Do not use ibid. or op cit. References to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. Smith A, 2000, unpublished data). All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the Reference List. Full publication title should be provided.

For those writing historical papers, please see more at https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html

We recommend the use of a tool such as Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here: http://www.refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp

Examples of different reference types:


General reference form:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title if article. Title of periodical, Vol(iss), pp–pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx


Kako, M., Mitani, S., & Arbon, P. (2012). Literature review of disaster health research in Japan: focusing on disaster nursing education. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine, 27(2), 178–183.

Online article not yet published in a journal issue

An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (and therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.


Baack, S., & Alfred, D. (2013). Nurses' preparedness and perceived competence in managing disasters. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12029


For an entire book, use for the following reference formats:

  • Author, A.A., (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
  • Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www. xxxxxx
  • Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xxxxx
  • Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.


Wall, B, M. & Keeling, A. W. (2011). Nurses on the front line when disaster strikes 1878-2010. New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Chapter in a book

To site a chapter from a book, use the following format: Author, A.A. (year). Title of work. In: x. xxx & x. xxx (Eds), Title of book, (pp. 00–00). Location: Publisher.


Knebel, A. R., Toomey, L., & Lobby, M. (2012). Nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response. In: M. Pat & P. Watts (Eds), Disasters and Humanitarian Assistance, (pp. 21–45). New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Non-English journal article, title translated into English


Nakamura, A., Kuraoka, Y., Ibe, T., & Oku, H. (2012). The pilot of the disaster nursing education in the health care delivery system II. Bulletin of St. Luke's College of Nursing, 38, 44–51. (in Japanese)

Kisioğlu, A.N., Öztürk, M., Uskun E., & Kırbıyık, S. (2002). Epidemiology and actions directed at preventive needlestick and sharp injuries in a university hospital's health care personnel. Türkiye Klinikleri Tıp Bilimleri, 22, 390–396. (in Turkish)

Electronic Material


Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications with the collaboration of Ministries and Agencies. (2012). Japan in figures and graphs. [Cited 27 Mar 2012.] Available from URL: http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/GL36010101. do?_toGL36010101_

Figure legends

The figure legends should be presented on a separate page. Legends should be concise but comprehensive; the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.


Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Each table should be presented on a separate page with the legend at the top. Legends should be concise but comprehensive; the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in the footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for p values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.


When preparing an article for submission as an Image Essay, please note the following guidelines.

  • Image Essays should be 200 – 900 words in length (longer or shorter articles may be accepted upon negotiation with the Editors).
  • Submit images electronically, but do not embed the images in the text file. Images must be supplied as separate electronic files during the submission process.
  • Image size: at least 5" x 7" but not larger than 11" x 14". Image resolution: digital images that are 5" x 7" or larger must be at least 300 dpi; a higher resolution is required for smaller images. Format: Illustrator, Photoshop, or Quark XPress files saved in JPEG, TIFF, PICT, or PDF format.
  • Follow HEDN’s referencing guidelines when citing other work.
  • Keep quotations short and include the page number(s) in parentheses.
  • Authors are responsible for obtaining all appropriate permissions to reproduce text and/or images from copyright owners.


It is essential that the corresponding author supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production.

Microsoft Word files of edited articles will be sent for checking via email, and should be returned to the Publisher within 3 days of receipt. It is essential that these files are checked carefully, as the cost of changes made at a later stage may be charged to the author. Full instructions on how to correct and return the file will be attached to the email.

Notification of the URL from where to download a Portable Document Format (PDF) typeset proof page, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated. Otherwise, it may be signed off by the Editor or held over to the next issue.


An offprint service is not available.


There are no submission fees associated with this Journal; however, once the article has been accepted for publication, an Article Publication Charge (APC) will require payment.


Please refer to the Article Processing Charges (APC) section above.


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors and make the appropriate APC payment.