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Author Guidelines

Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing Instructions to Authors

Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing (HEDN) is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing basic, experimental and clinical knowledge from around the world on all aspects of disaster nursing.

  • Aims and Scope
  • Manuscript Types
  • Journal & Ethics Policies
  • Peer Review Process
  • Copyright, Open Access and Fees
  • Manuscript Submission
  • Manuscript Preparation
  • Accepted Manuscripts
  • Contact

Aims and Scope

Health Emergency and Disaster Nursing (HEDN) is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing basic, clinical, and historical scholarship from around the world. It is a showcase for the most significant current research on all aspects of disaster nursing stemming from natural or human-made disasters. The journal publishes high-quality, well-conducted research across the physiological, psychological, and social aspects of individuals, families, communities, and nations and all disaster environments. A diverse range of article types are available as Open Access and are often published within 30 days of acceptance.

Supported by the non-profit organization Disaster Nursing Group, the journal aims to promote global excellence in nursing by facilitating knowledge exchange at local, regional and international levels. Early-career scholars are particularly encouraged to submit their best work so it can be read by our broad global audience of health practitioners, professionals and academic researchers.

Researchers, clinicians, and individuals interested in disaster nursing will find HEDN an important resource.

Manuscript Types

The journal welcomes a range of manuscript types, all of which are subject to peer review. Authors are welcome to propose to the Editor-in-Chief other article types that would be more suitable to their research or manuscript.

Original Articles
Reports of original research, consisting of an introduction, methods, results, and discussion. Original Articles must provide at least 10 references and an explanation of research findings.
Length: Approximately 5000 words (not including the abstract, references, tables and/or figures).
Critical evaluations of current research via the organization, integration, and evaluation of previously published material. Re-analysis as meta-analysis and systemic reviews are encouraged.
Length: Not to exceed 4000 words (not including the abstract, references, tables and/or figures).
Practical Report
Reports on the practice of nursing in disaster settings.
Length: Approximately 5000 words (not including the abstract, references, tables and/or figures).
Rapid Communication
Reports about particularly important and/or timely work that justify rapid review and dissemination.
Length: Approximately 5000 words (not including the abstract, references, tables and/or figures).
Image Essay
Brief essays accompanied by images that explore a theme (e.g. a specific subject in disaster nursing) or tell a story. All types of images are welcome (e.g. photos, maps, documents or flags), and the images or text can be the primary focus.
Length: Approximately 900 words (although other lengths are considered).
Letters to the Editor
Communications relating to previously published articles in the journal. The authors of the article that is being commented upon are afforded the right to a Reply article.
Length: Not to exceed 2000 words.
History Papers
Essay-style articles in broad areas related to the history of nursing, disasters, healthcare, health policy, and society. A History Paper sets forth an argument based on primary and secondary sources and is placed within the context of other published literature on the topic.
Length: Approximately 5000 words.

Journal & Ethics Policies

HEDN upholds the highest standards in scholarly publishing.

Before submitting a manuscript to the journal, authors must ensure that they have read and complied with the journal’s policies. The journal reserves the right to reject without review, or retract, any manuscript that the Editor believes may not comply with these policies.

The responsibilities of the journal’s authors, editors, reviewers and publisher regarding research and publication ethics are described in full below.

Submission to the journal implies that the manuscript has not been previously published (in part or in whole, in any language), is not in press, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Authors must inform the editors if any related manuscripts are under consideration, in press or published elsewhere. The availability of a manuscript on a publicly accessible preprint server does not constitute prior publication (see ‘Preprints’).

If authors choose to submit their manuscript elsewhere before a final decision has been made on its suitability for publication in HEDN, they should first withdraw it from the journal.


The journal welcomes manuscript submissions from authors based anywhere in the world.

Submission of a manuscript to the journal implies that all authors: have approved it, warrant it is factual, have agreed to its submission, and have the right to publish it.


Submission to the journal implies that the manuscript is original work. Any manuscript with an unacceptable level of unoriginal material may be rejected or retracted at the Editors’ discretion.

The journal may use Crossref’s Similarity Check plagiarism software to screen manuscripts for unoriginal content. By submitting a manuscript to the journal, authors agree to this screening.


To support the wide dissemination of research, the journal encourages authors to post their research manuscripts on community-recognized preprint servers, either before or alongside submission to the journal. This policy applies only to the original version of a manuscript that describes primary research. Any version of a manuscript that has been revised in response to reviewers’ comments, accepted for publication or published in the journal should not be posted on a preprint server. Instead, forward links to the published manuscript may be posted on the preprint server.

Authors should retain copyright in their work when posting to a preprint server.


When assessing the novelty of a manuscript submitted to the journal, the editors will not be influenced by other manuscripts that are posted on community-recognized preprint servers after the date of submission to HEDN (or after the date of posting on a preprint server if the manuscript is submitted to the journal within 4 months).


Submission to the journal implies that all authors have seen and approved the author list. Changes to the author list after manuscript submission – such as the insertion or removal of author names, or a rearrangement of author order – must be approved by all authors and the editor.

Authors are encouraged to consider the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations on ‘Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors’. The ICMJE recommends that authorship is based on four criteria: making a substantial contribution to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data for the work; drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; approving the final version of the manuscript for publication; and agreeing to be held accountable for all aspects of the work. Any contributor who has met all four criteria should be an author on the manuscript. Contributors who do not meet all four criteria should not be authors of the manuscript but may be included in the Acknowledgments section instead.

Image integrity

Authors may digitally manipulate or process images, but only if the adjustments are kept to a minimum, are applied to the entire image, meet community standards, and are clearly described in the manuscript. All images in a manuscript must accurately reflect the original data on which they are based. Authors must not move, remove, add or enhance individual parts of an image. The editors reserve the right to request original, unprocessed images from the authors. Failure to provide requested images may result in a manuscript being rejected or retracted.

Reproducing copyrighted material

Authors are responsible for securing permissions for all materials and photographs submitted that are not under the authors’ own copyright. If more than 500 words of a text are quoted from a book, or more than 250 words from an article, or if a table or figure has been previously published, the manuscript must be accompanied by written permission or a license from the copyright owner (usually the Publisher), stating authorization to reproduce the material. This must be attached to the cover letter. Appropriate citations to the materials must be made within the manuscript.

Availability of data and materials

Authors must disclose the source of publicly available data and materials, such as public repositories or commercial manufacturers, by including accession numbers or company details in their manuscript, as appropriate.

Authors may make their own data and materials available by linking from their manuscript to relevant community-recognized public databases or digital repositories. All data sets must be made available in full to the editors and reviewers during the peer review process, and must be made publicly available by the date of publication. Authors commit to preserving their data sets for at least three years from the date of publication in the journal.

The journal encourages authors to grant reasonable requests from colleagues to share any data, materials and experimental protocols described in their manuscript.

Nucleotide sequence data can be submitted in electronic form to any one of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ, EMBL or GenBank. The suggested wording for including any accession-number information in the manuscript is: “These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number U12345.” More details are available at:



Studies involving humans and/or animals

Authors must follow the ethical standards for human experimentation established in the Declaration of Helsinki in 1995 (as revised in Seoul 2008 and otherwise), available at http://www.wma.net/.

Authors reporting studies involving human subjects must have obtained approval from an appropriate institutional ethics board before beginning any data collection that is reported in the study results. Upon request from the journal Editors, the author(s) must provide copies of the appropriate documentation. Local institutional approval must be indicated in the Materials and Methods section of the submitted manuscript.

If the study is exempt from Institutional Review Board approval, or if the authors’ institution has no mechanism to approve the protection of human subjects, an explanation signed by an appropriate institution representative must be submitted along with the manuscript and described in the Materials and Methods section of the submitted manuscript.

All investigations of human subjects must include a statement that the subject(s) gave informed consent. Patient anonymity should be preserved. Photographs need to be cropped sufficiently to prevent human subjects being recognized (or an eye bar should be used).

In general, submission of a case report should be accompanied by the written consent of the subject (or parent/guardian) before publication; this is particularly important where photographs are to be used or in cases where the unique nature of the incident reported makes it possible for the patient to be identified. While the Editorial Board recognizes that it might not always be possible or appropriate to seek such consent, the onus will be on the authors to demonstrate that this exception applies in their case.

Any experiments involving animals must be demonstrated to be ethically acceptable and, where relevant, conform to national guidelines for animal usage in research.

Clinical trial registration

HEDN supports the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) policy on Clinical Trials Registration, which recommends that all clinical trials are registered in a public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication. Authors of manuscripts describing clinical trials must include the name of the trial registry and the registration number of the clinical trial at the end of their abstract. If you wish the Editor to consider a manuscript describing an unregistered trial, please explain briefly why the trial has not been registered. Examples of public clinical trial registries include: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; http://clinicaltrials-dev.ifpma.org/; http://isrctn.org/; http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm.

Reporting guidelines

The journal requires authors to follow the EQUATOR Network’s Reporting Guidelines for health research. Study types include, but are not limited to, randomized trials, observational studies, systematic reviews, case reports, qualitative research, diagnostic and prognostic studies, economic evaluations, animal pre-clinical studies and study protocols.

Author competing interests and conflicts of interest

Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose a conflict of interest. It is the responsibility of the authors to disclose to the Editor any significant financial or personal interests they may have in products, technology or methodology mentioned in their manuscript. This information will be deemed confidential and will only be disclosed to manuscript reviewers if, in the opinion of the Editor, the information is directly pertinent to an informed review.

Authors should list all funding sources for their work in the Acknowledgments section of their manuscript.


The journal maintains the confidentiality of all unpublished manuscripts. By submitting their manuscript to the journal, the authors warrant that they will keep all correspondence about their manuscript (from the Editorial Office, editors and reviewers) strictly confidential.

Self-archiving (Green Open Access) policy

Self-archiving, also known as Green Open Access, enables authors to deposit a copy of their manuscript in an online repository. The journal encourages authors of original research manuscripts to upload their article to an institutional or public repository immediately after publication in the journal.

Long-term digital archiving

J-STAGE preserves its full digital library, including HEDN, with Portico in a dark archive (see https://www.portico.org/publishers/jstage/). In the event that the material becomes unavailable at J-STAGE, it will be released and made available by Portico.

Peer Review Process

Editorial and peer review process

Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are subject to double-blind peer review and are sent to two or more anonymous reviewers by the relevant Editor. The final decision on a manuscript’s suitability for publication in the journal is the responsibility of the Editorial Board..

When a manuscript is submitted to the journal, it is assigned to the Editor-in-Chief, who performs initial screening. Manuscripts that do not fit the journal’s scope or are deemed unsuitable for publication are rejected without review. The remaining manuscripts are assigned to an Editor, who assigns two reviewers to assess each manuscript.

Upon receipt of the two reviewers’ reports, the Editor makes the first decision on the manuscript. If the decision is to request revision of the manuscript, authors have 3 months to resubmit their revised manuscript. Revised manuscripts submitted after this deadline may be treated as new submissions.

When submitting a revised manuscript, a point-by-point response to reviewers’ comments is required in the Author’s Response section. In the manuscript, authors should also highlight their changes by using bold or colored text. The author’s name should not be included in the Author’s Response section for the double-blind review. The track changes function in Microsoft Word must not be used when a revised manuscript is submitted.

The Editor may send revised manuscripts to peer reviewers for their feedback or may use his or her own judgement to assess how closely the authors have followed the Editor’s and the reviewers’ comments on the original manuscript.

The Editor then makes a recommendation to the Editor-in-Chief on the manuscript’s suitability for publication. The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for making the final decision on each manuscript, with the assistance of the Editorial Board.

In cases where the Editor-in-Chief is an author on a manuscript submitted to the journal, a member of the Editorial Board is responsible for making the final decision on the manuscript’s suitability for publication in the journal.

Reviewer selection, timing and suggestions

Reviewers are selected without regard to geography and need not belong to HEDN’s Editorial Board. Reviewers are selected based on their expertise in the field, reputation, recommendation by others, and/or previous experience as peer reviewers for the journal.

Reviewers who anticipate any delays in returning their review within the requested time should inform the Editorial Office as soon as possible.

When submitting a manuscript to the journal, authors may suggest reviewers that they would like included in or excluded from the peer review process. The Editor may consider these suggestions but is under no obligation to follow them. The selection, invitation and assignment of peer reviewers is at the Editor’s sole discretion.

Reviewer reports

It is the journal’s policy to transmit reviewers’ comments to the authors in their original form. However, the journal reserves the right to edit reviewers’ comments, without consulting the reviewers, if they contain offensive language, confidential information or recommendations for publication.

Acceptance criteria

If a manuscript satisfies the journal’s requirements and represents a significant contribution to the published literature, the Editor may recommend acceptance for publication in the journal.

  • Articles in HEDN must be:
  • within the subject area of the journal’s scope
  • novel and original
  • of high interest to the journal’s audience
  • competent and clear descriptions of technically rigorous research
  • important additions to the field.

If a manuscript does not meet the journal’s requirements for acceptance or revision, the Editorial Board may recommend rejection.

Editorial independence

The journal publisher, the Disaster Nursing Group, has granted the journal’s Editorial Board complete and sole responsibility for all editorial decisions. The Disaster Nursing Group will not become involved in editorial decisions, except in cases of a fundamental breakdown of process.

Editorial decisions are based only on a manuscript’s scientific merit and are kept completely separate from the journal’s other interests. The authors’ ability to pay any publication charges has no bearing on whether a manuscript is accepted for publication in the journal.


Authors who believe that an editorial decision has been made in error may lodge an appeal with the Editorial Office. Appeals are only considered if the authors provide detailed evidence of a misunderstanding or mistake by a reviewer or editor. Appeals are considered carefully by the Editor-in-Chief, whose decision is final. The guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) are followed where and when relevant.

Confidentiality in peer review

The journal maintains the confidentiality of all unpublished manuscripts. Editors and reviewers will not:

  1. disclose a reviewer’s identity unless the reviewer makes a reasonable request for such disclosure
  2. discuss the manuscript or its contents with anyone not directly involved with the manuscript or its peer review
  3. use any data or information from the manuscript in their own work or publications
  4. use information obtained from the peer review process to provide an advantage to themselves or anyone else, or to disadvantage any individual or organization.

In addition, reviewers will not reveal their identity to any of the authors of the manuscript or involve anyone else in the review (for example, a post-doc or PhD student) without first requesting permission from the Editor.

Conflicts of interest in peer review

A conflict of interest exists when there are actual, perceived or potential circumstances that could influence an editor’s ability to act impartially when assessing a manuscript. Such circumstances might include having a personal or professional relationship with an author, working on the same topic or in direct competition with an author, having a financial stake in the work or its publication, or having seen previous versions of the manuscript.

Members of the journal’s Editorial Board and reviewers undertake or are asked to declare any conflicts of interest when handling manuscripts. An editor or reviewer who declares a conflict of interest is unassigned from the manuscript in question and is replaced by a new editor or reviewer.

Editors try to avoid conflicts of interest when inviting reviewers, but it is not always possible to identify potential bias.

Errata and retractions

The journal recognizes the importance of maintaining the integrity of published literature.

A published article that contains an error may be corrected through the publication of an Erratum. Errata describe errors that significantly affect the scientific integrity of a publication, the reputation of the authors, or the journal itself. Authors who wish to correct a published article should contact the editor who handled their manuscript or the Editorial Office with full details of the error(s) and their requested changes. In cases where co-authors disagree over a correction, the Editor-in-Chief may consult the Editorial Board or external peer reviewers for advice. If an Erratum is published, any dissenting authors will be noted in the text.

A published article that contains invalid or unreliable results or conclusions, has been published elsewhere, or has infringed codes of conduct (covering research or publication ethics) may be retracted. Individuals who believe that a published article should be retracted are encouraged to contact the journal’s Editorial Office with full details of their concerns. The Editor-in-Chief will investigate further and contact the authors of the published article for their response. In cases where co-authors disagree over a retraction, the Editor-in-Chief may consult the Editorial Board or external peer reviewers for advice. If a Retraction is published, any dissenting authors will be noted in the text.

The decision to publish Errata or Retractions is made at the sole discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.

Editors as authors in the journal

Any member of the journal’s Editorial Board, including the Editor-in-Chief, who is an author on a submitted manuscript is excluded from the peer review process. Within the journal’s online manuscript submission and tracking system, they will be able to see their manuscript as an author but not as an editor, thereby maintaining the confidentiality of peer review.

A manuscript authored by an editor of HEDN is subject to the same high standards of peer review and editorial decision making as any manuscript considered by the journal.

Responding to potential ethical breaches

The journal will respond to allegations of ethical breaches by following its own policies and, where possible, the guidelines of COPE.

Copyright, Open Access and Fees

HEDN is fully Open Access and uses a Creative Commons (CC) license, which, under predefined conditions, allows users to use, reuse and build upon the material published in the journal without charge or the need to ask prior permission from the publisher or author.

Copyright and licensing

Authors retain copyright but are required to sign a License to Publish to grant the Disaster Nursing Group permission to reproduce the work in the journal under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. This license allows users to share and adapt an article, even commercially, as long as they cite the original authors and the journal appropriately.

Some funding bodies require articles funded by them to be published under a specific Creative Commons license. Before submitting your work to the journal, check with the relevant funding bodies to ensure that you comply with any mandates.

Article Processing Charge

There are many costs associated with publishing scholarly journals, such as those of managing peer review, copy editing, typesetting and online hosting. To cover these costs in the absence of journal subscriptions, authors (or their representatives) are asked to pay article processing charges (APCs).

The journal charges an APC of US$1,500 for all article types except Image Essays, which are US$200. Students receive a 50% discount on the full APC, and there is no charge to students for Image Essays. There are no submission fees.

Waiver policy

The journal will waive the APC on an article if none of the authors are professionally affiliated with a research organization, or if all authors are from a ‘Least Developed Country’ or ‘Other Low Income Country’ on the OECD’s qualifying country list. Other waivers will be considered on a case-by-case basis by the journal’s Editorial Office. Authors must apply for a waiver before or upon the submission of their manuscript; applications will not be considered after the review process has started.

The ability of an author to pay the APC does not influence editorial decisions. To avoid any possibility of undue influence, editors involved with the decision-making process on submitted manuscripts are not involved in any deliberations on waivers.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts must be submitted online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/hedn. Authors must supply an email address, as all correspondence will be by email.

After submission, authors will receive a confirmation email. Authors can also access ScholarOne any time to check the status of their manuscript. The journal notifies authors by email once a decision has been made.

The original or revised manuscript text may be uploaded as a PDF or Microsoft Word file, but a Word file is required for the final manuscript text. Figures may be submitted separately in several other formats.

If you encounter any problems with online submission, please contact the Editorial Office using the details provided in the ‘Contact’ section.

Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the given field. They should be written in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of content, the Editor reserves the right to modify manuscripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition, and improve communication between author and reader. If alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.

Material that might identify authorship of the paper should not be included in the manuscript file. The title page and specific acknowledgments should be in a separate ‘title page’ file, which will not be sent to the reviewers.


All articles submitted to the journal must comply with the following instructions. Failure to do so will result in the return of the manuscript to the authors.

  • Submissions should be double-spaced throughout the manuscript, including tables.
  • All margins should be at least 30 mm or 1½ inches.
  • Font size must be 12 point, including data and text in tables.
  • Hard returns should not be used at the end of each line within paragraphs.
  • The hyphenation option should be turned off; only those hyphens that are essential to the meaning should be included.
  • Any special characters used to represent non-keyboard characters should be specified.
  • Care should be taken to not use l (ell) for 1 (one), O (capital o) for 0 (zero) or ß (German esszett) for β (Greek beta).
  • Tabs, not spaces, should be used to separate data points within tables. If a table editor function is used, ensure that each data point is contained within a unique cell (i.e. do not use carriage returns within cells).

History Papers should follow the guidelines as set out in the Chicago 17th Style format. See https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html.

All other manuscript types should follow the style of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition (2019), http://www.apastyle.org/index.aspx, and the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ revised ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’, as published at http://www.ICMJE.org/.

English standards

Authors are responsible for the linguistic accuracy of their manuscripts. All authors should seek advice from subject specialists with a sound knowledge of English. Authors who need English assistance should contact the Editorial Office for details regarding an English-language editing service. The Editorial Office does not provide any guarantee or warranty regarding this service and will not be held responsible for the content accuracy.

The journal uses US spelling. All authors should follow the latest edition of the Merriam–Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.

Cover Letter

Authors must provide a cover letter that includes: (i) the manuscript title; (ii) the full names of the authors; (iii) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out, together with (iv) a full postal and email address, and telephone numbers of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent. The current address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied.

Manuscripts are accepted for publication in the journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in the cover letter.


Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page; (ii) abstract and keywords; (iii) text; (iv) acknowledgments; (v) disclosure statement; (vi) authors’ contributions; (vii) references; (viii) appendices; (ix) figure legends; (x) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes); and (xi) figures. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Title and title page

The title should be short and informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title. A short running title (less than 50 characters) should also be provided.

As the journal is double-blind peer-reviewed, the title page of the initial submission should contain the manuscript title, the full names of all authors, the corresponding author’s contact details, as well as the acknowledgments, disclosure statement, and author contributions sections.


Provide the full names, with initials, of the author(s).

Provide full names and addresses of institutions (including laboratory, department, institute and/or university, city, state and country). When authors belong to different institutions, their respective addresses should be indicated by superscript numbers. When authors have new addresses, they should be given in a footnote and should be indicated by superscript symbols (such as * and **).

Abbreviations should be used sparingly – only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation only.

Trade names

Chemical substances should be referred to by the generic name only. Trade names should not be used. Drugs should be referred to by their generic names. If proprietary drugs have been used in the study, refer to these by their generic name, mentioning the proprietary name, and the name and location of the manufacturer, in parentheses.

Genetic nomenclature

Standard genetic nomenclature should be used. For further information, including relevant websites, authors should refer to the genetic nomenclature guide in Trends in Genetics (Elsevier Science, 1998).


SI or SI-derived units should be used. More information on SI units is available at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website.

Abstract and key words

Include the Abstract at the beginning of the main manuscript file, as well as entering it in the designated space during online submission.

All articles (except Letters to the Editor, Replies, and Image Essays) must have a structured abstract that states in 250 words or fewer the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. Divide the abstract with the subheadings: Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusions. The Abstract should not contain abbreviations or references.

Five key words, for the purposes of indexing, should be supplied below the Abstract, in alphabetical order, and should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list.


Authors should use the following subheadings to divide the sections of their manuscript: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References.

If the manuscript is accepted, the Acknowledgments, Authors’ Contributions, and Disclosures sections must be added before the References section..


The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.


At the time of submission, each author must disclose and describe any involvement, financial or otherwise, which might potentially bias his or her work. The disclosure must be provided under the heading “Disclosures”, which should appear on the title page. If accepted, the Disclosures section should be inserted after the Acknowledgments section and before the References section. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated.

Authors’ Contributions

Each manuscript must have an Authors’ Contributions section, which upon submission should appear on the title page and then in the order as instructed above if the manuscript is accepted. Please refer to the Authorship section above for the journal’s general policy on authorship.

For the Authors’ Contributions section, please use the following format. Use initials to refer to each author’s contribution: e.g. AB, CD contributed to the conception and design of this study; EF performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript; GH critically reviewed the manuscript and supervised the whole study process.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. Authors should use the Harvard author–date system of referencing as shown in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition). Examples are given below.

In the text, give the author’s name followed by the year in parentheses; for example, Smith (2000). If there are two authors use ‘and’, for example, Smith and Jones (2001); but if cited within parentheses use ‘&’: (Smith & Jones, 2001). When reference is made to a work by three to five authors, cite all authors the first time it occurs; subsequently, list the first author followed by et al. If there are six or more authors, cite only the first author and then use et al. For references to multiple sources, please list these in chronological then alphabetical order. In the Reference List, references should be listed in alphabetical order.

In the References list, cite the names of all authors when there are six or fewer; when seven or more, list the first six followed by et al. Do not use ibid. or op cit. References to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. Smith A, 2000, unpublished data). All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the References list. Full publication title should be provided.

For those writing History Papers, please see more at https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html

We recommend the use of a tool such as Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here: http://www.refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp

Journal articles

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, Vol(iss), pp–pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx


Kako, M., Mitani, S., & Arbon, P. (2012). Literature review of disaster health research in Japan: focusing on disaster nursing education. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine, 27(2), 178–183.

Online article not yet published in a journal issue

An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (and therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its digital object identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.


Baack, S., & Alfred, D. (2013). Nurses’ preparedness and perceived competence in managing disasters. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12029

  • Author, A.A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
  • Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www. xxxxxx [inset URL]
  • Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xxxxx [insert DOI]
  • Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Wall, B, M. & Keeling, A. W. (2011). Nurses on the front line when disaster strikes 1878-2010. New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Chapter in a book

To cite a chapter from a book, use the following format: Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. In: A. Editor & A. Editor (Eds), Title of book, (pp. 00–00). Location: Publisher.

Knebel, A. R., Toomey, L., & Lobby, M. (2012). Nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response. In: M. Pat & P. Watts (Eds), Disasters and Humanitarian Assistance, (pp. 21–45). New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Non-English journal article, title translated into English

Nakamura, A., Kuraoka, Y., Ibe, T., & Oku, H. (2012). The pilot of the disaster nursing education in the health care delivery system II. Bulletin of St. Luke’s College of Nursing, 38, 44–51. (in Japanese)

Kisioğlu, A.N., Öztürk, M., Uskun E., & Kırbıyık, S. (2002). Epidemiology and actions directed at preventive needlestick and sharp injuries in a university hospital's health care personnel. Türkiye Klinikleri Tıp Bilimleri, 22, 390–396. (in Turkish)

Electronic material

Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications with the collaboration of Ministries and Agencies. (2012). Japan in figures and graphs. [Accessed 27 Mar 2012.] Available from URL: https://dashboard.e-stat.go.jp/en/. _


Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Each table should be presented on a separate page with the legend at the top. Legends should be concise but comprehensive; the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in the footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for p values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.


Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 dpi) should be uploaded as .eps or .tif files. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used for publication.

Magnifications of photographs should be indicated in the legends and/or by scales included in the photographs. Figures must be self-explanatory and they should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals (i.e., Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.). Each figure should have a short title.

For Image Essays, submit images electronically, but do not embed the images in the text file. Images must be supplied as separate electronic files during the submission process. The image size must be at least 5" x 7" but not larger than 11" x 14". Image resolution: digital images that are 5" x 7" or larger must be at least 300 dpi; a higher resolution is required for smaller images. Format: Illustrator, Photoshop, or Quark XPress files saved in JPEG, TIFF, PICT, or PDF format.

Figure legends

The figure legends should be presented on a separate page. Legends should be concise but comprehensive; the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

Accepted Manuscripts

Manuscripts that are accepted for publication are copyedited and typeset by the journal’s production team before publication. The journal is published continuously online. All communication regarding accepted manuscripts is with the corresponding author.


There are two proofing stages at the journal. First, a Microsoft Word file of the edited manuscript will be sent by email to the author for checking and should be returned to the email address as provided within 3 days of receipt. It is essential that this file is checked carefully, as the cost of changes made at a later stage may be charged to the author. Full instructions on how to correct and return the file will be attached to the email.

Second, an email with a URL to download a portable document format (PDF) typeset proof page, associated forms and further instructions will be sent to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is to give authors the opportunity to perform a final check of the layout and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at the PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated. Otherwise, the article may be signed off by the Editor or publication may be delayed.


To contact the Editorial Office or the Editor-in-Chief, please write to:

  • HEDN Editorial Office
  • 4-34-14-101, Hongo
  • Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo
  • 113-0033 Japan
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  • 81-3-5805-0527

Updated: December 8, 2021